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The Imperial Roman Empire from 31 B.C.E. to 476 C.E. and the Han Dynasty of China from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E

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The Imperial Roman Empire from 31 B.C.E. to 476 C.E. and the Han Dynasty of China from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. are two well-known classical empires. These two empires have many similarities and differences between their political structures. The Romans had a democratic government which gave power to the people while the Chinese had a single ruler that controlled all of the decisions. In Imperial Rome, there were two classes of citizens, the Patricians and the Plebeians. For a long time only the Patricians had a say in Roman government through the Senate and Consuls. Eventually Plebeians were given the Tribunes as a way for them to give their input into the Roman government. This was much different from the government in the Han Dynasty. In China at this time the government was based off of the Mandate of Heaven. This stated that the ruler had a specific way to live and rule his empire and if he failed, he would lose this mandate. Many emperors were overthrown and the new emperors would rule by saying that the last had lost the Mandate of Heaven. The Han government was also very close-knit with teachings, especially of Confucian. Some of these teachings included that rulers would levy light taxes, avoid wars, support education and encourage harmony and cooperation throughout his empire. This is important because it went hand in hand with the Mandate of Heaven and if a Ruler wasnt fulfilling his duties as a good Confucian or emperor then he would lose the throne. Although there were many differences between Han China and Imperial Rome, the two classical civilizations also had several similarities. Both of these empires were connected by the silk roads which they traded with each other to boost their economies. With the trade and income of money and goods to each empire, new taxes would be issued to support the governments. These taxes often helped to build more roads and even postal systems. Through trade along the silk roads came the spread of diseases also. Between the first and tenth century C.E. the population of Rome dropped by a quarter, this drop occurred even quicker in Han China from the first to seventh century C.E. This decrease in population is significant in both empires because it shows the correlation between the two and that their trade with one another, and also with other empires around them, they spread diseases including smallpox, measles, and even the bubonic plague. These illnesses were very severe and led to drastic changes in the population

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